COVID-19 Clinical Guidelines–General

If we can assist your organization in the battle against COVID-19, whether or not you are a current member, please contact us today at clientservices@ecri.org.

ACR statement on safe resumption of routine radiology care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: American College of Radiology (ACR)

Guideline Focus
Resumption of routine radiology care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring routine radiology studies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Enactment of safety measures, including personal protective equipment (PPE) use, social distancing, and telehealth
  • Deferment of routine care when indicated by local pandemic statistics
  • Risk-benefit analysis and development of a tiered plan for return to routine care
  • Provision of care that was previously delayed/deferred
  • Management of patient and staff anxiety

Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Jun 5
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of medical masks in communities, at home, and in health care facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Community masking guidance for those with and without respiratory symptoms
  • Use of medical masks for those with suspected or documented COVID-19 illness who are being managed at home, and for their caregivers
  • Use of medical masks by health care workers in health care facilities and the community
  • Role of respirators in specific clinical care circumstances
  • Guidance on type of mask and mask management, including proper use, removal, and disposal

AGA Institute rapid review of the GI and liver manifestations of COVID-19, meta-analysis of international data, and recommendations for the consultative management of patients with COVID-19

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute

Guideline Focus
Gastrointestinal (GI) and liver manifestations of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Assessment and management of new onset GI symptoms in outpatients
  • Evaluation of GI symptoms in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
  • Guidance on use of stool testing for COVID-19
  • Monitoring and management of elevated liver function tests (LFTs)
  • Treatment-related GI and hepatic adverse effects

ASE statement on protection of patients and echocardiography service providers during the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak

Date: 2020 Apr 1
Developer: American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)

Guideline Focus
Protection of patients and echocardiography service providers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring echocardiography during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Indications for transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram
  • Location of study and screening of outpatients
  • Protocol for echocardiogram technique, and exclusion of learners and at-risk staff
  • Cleaning and disinfecting of equipment and exam rooms

Australian guidelines for the clinical care of people with COVID-19. Version 22.0

Date: 2020 Sep 16
Developer: National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Task Force (NC19CETF)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Definitions of disease severity in adults and children (mild, moderate, severe, critical)
  • Monitoring and markers of clinical deterioration
  • Guidance surrounding treatment for adults, children, and pregnant or breastfeeding women, including aprepitant, baloxavir marboxil, calcifediol, chloroquine, colchicine, convalescent plasma, darunavir-cobicistat, favipiravir, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, immunoglobulin plus methylprednisolone, interferon β-1a, interferon gamma, lopinavir-ritonavir, ruxolitinib, sofosbuvir-daclatasvir, telmisartan, umifenovir, and other disease modifying agents
  • Guidance surrounding chemoprophylaxis following exposure
  • Respiratory support considerations, including high-flow nasal oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation, respiratory management of the deteriorating patient, videolaryngoscopy, neuromuscular blockers, positive end-expiratory pressure, prone positioning, recruitment manoeuvres, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Use of inhaled or oral steroids for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis considerations
  • Continuation of anti-hypertensive medications in patients with COVID-19, including people with asthma and COPD, and postpartum women
  • Guidance on pregnancy care, including antenatal corticosteroids, mode of birth, delayed umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and rooming-in of mother and newborn

British Thoracic Society guidance on respiratory follow up of patients with a clinico-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia

Date: 2020 May 11
Developer: British Thoracic Society (BTS)

Guideline Focus
Radiological follow up of the pneumonic process and the subsequent diagnosis and management of respiratory complications of COVID-19 pneumonia

Patient Population
Patients with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Follow up clinical, radiological and investigational evaluation algorithm for patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, including those requiring ICU care
  • Follow up clinical, radiological, and investigational evaluation algorithm for patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 pneumonia who were hospitalized or cared for at home
  • Team management approach and role of telehealth

Clinical management of COVID-19: interim guidance

Date: 2020 May 27
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Management of COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Screening, triage, diagnosis and infection prevention measures
  • Symptomatic treatment and monitoring for mild disease
  • Treatment of pneumonia in moderate and severe disease
  • Management of ARDS and septic shock, and prevention of complications in critical illness
  • Guidance on adjunctive therapies and treatment of other infections, conditions, and manifestations
  • Care of special populations, including pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and infants, older persons, and those requiring palliative care
  • Ethical considerations, reporting of death, and the role of clinical research

Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Date: 2020 Aug 19
Developer: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM)

Guideline Focus
Occupational health and treatment considerations for COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Employer considerations, including risk mitigation strategies, isolation, and return-to-work protocols
  • Management strategies for schools and specific industries
  • Disease spread, diagnostic testing considerations, and disease categories
  • Treatment options, including antivirals, IL-6 receptor antagonists, convalescent antibodies, glucocorticoids, vitamin D, and zinc
  • Guidance on use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine for treatment or prophylaxis, and azithromycin

Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) treatment guidelines

Date: 2020 Sep 1
Developer: National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of prophylactic medications before or after exposure, additional testing, and pharmacological treatment for all levels of disease severity
  • Infection control and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers
  • Viral and serologic testing considerations for all illness severities
  • Treatment of critically ill patients, including hemodynamic and ventilatory support, oxygenation, laboratory testing, pharmacotherapy, acute kidney injury, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Special considerations for pregnancy and pediatric patients
  • Use of dexamethasone and remdesivir in patients who are mechanically ventilated or on supplemental oxygen, including use of alternative corticosteroids when dexamethasone is unavailable
  • Antithrombotic therapy, including laboratory testing, management of chronic therapy, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and screening, treatment, and considerations in pregnancy
  • Considerations surrounding use and discontinuation of antihypertensives, corticosteroids, statins, and antiinflammatory medications
  • Considerations for solid organ transplant, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, and cellular therapy candidates, donors, and recipients
  • Guidance on use of blood-derived products, interferons, IL-1, IL-6, kinase inhibitors, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, ivermectin, lopinavir/ritonavir, convalescent plasma and other HIV protease inhibitors for treatment
  • Guidance surrounding adjunctive therapy with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc

COVID-19 coronavirus disease guidelines. Version 1.3

Date: 2020 May
Developer: Saudi Center for Disease Prevention and Control (SaudiCDC)

Guideline Focus
Detection and prevention of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Definitions of suspected and confirmed cases
  • Infection prevention and control measures, and considerations for patient transport
  • Laboratory diagnosis and sample handling
  • Public health considerations, including contact tracing, surveillance, and isolation management
  • Human-animal interface, points of entry, traveler health, and managing of deceased bodies

COVID-19 guidelines. Version 2

Date: 2020 Apr 15
Developer: Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS)

Guideline Focus
COVID-19 pandemic planning

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Development of ICU pandemic plans, including decreasing ICU demand and increasing capacity
  • Considerations for remote, rural, and regional areas
  • Management of rapid response and code blue teams, patient transport, and critically ill patients in the emergency department
  • Infection control, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and engineering controls
  • Management of staff, including attention to wellbeing

COVID-19 infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest

Date: 2020 Sep 10
Developer: International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR)

Guideline Focus
Infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest

Patient Population
Known or suspected COVID-19 patients in cardiac arrest

Major Interventions

  • Generation of aerosols by CPR and chest compressions
  • Lay rescuer resuscitation guidance for adults and children during the COVID-19 pandemic
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers performing aerosol generating procedures during resuscitation
  • Role of defibrillation prior to donning PPE

COVID-19 position statement: presentations and management of COVID-19 in older people in acute care. Version 1

Date: 2020 May 29
Developer: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

Guideline Focus
Management of COVID-19 in hospitalized older patients

Patient Population
Older adult patients who have COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Diagnostic considerations, including presenting symptoms, concurrent illnesses, laboratory testing, and frailty
  • Care planning, including palliation, family communication, and visitation
  • Age-specific management considerations
  • Considerations for patient movement, cohorting, and patients with delirium who wander
  • Planning for rehabilitation and safe discharge

COVID-19 position statement: the prevention and management of thromboembolism in hospitalised patients with COVID-19-related disease. Version 1

Date: 2020 Jul 20
Developer: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

Guideline Focus
Prevention and management of thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 who are hospitalized

Major Interventions

  • Indications and pharmacological dosing considerations for thromboprophylaxis
  • Indications and considerations for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) evaluation
  • Post-discharge treatment and follow-up for those with and without venous thromboembolism (VTE)

COVID-19 position statement: reducing the risk of postoperative mortality due to COVID-19 in patients undergoing elective surgery

Date: 2020 Aug 21
Developer: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

Guideline Focus
Assessment and isolation of patients prior to all elective surgery to reduce the risk of postoperative mortality due to COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and paediatric patients undergoing elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Patient communication and discussion of risk
  • Risk mitigation and presurgical preparation
  • Presurgical screening and COVID-19 testing, including testing method considerations
  • Management of positive preoperative COVID-19 testing
  • Postoperative and post discharge advice and management
  • Considerations for special populations, including paediatric, pregnant, and cancer patients

COVID-19 rapid guideline: acute kidney injury in hospital

Date: 2020 May 6
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Prevent, detect and manage acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients who are hospitalized with COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and families, risk reduction, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Treatment planning and monitoring for progression to chronic kidney disease
  • Prevention of acute kidney injury and monitoring for development, including attention to fluid balance
  • Diagnostic testing considerations and management of hyperkalemia
  • Criteria for specialty referral and renal replacement therapy considerations

COVID-19 rapid guideline: acute myocardial injury

Date: 2020 Apr 23
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Acute myocardial injury in COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 and acute myocardial injury

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and patient isolation
  • Clinical presentation and diagnostic testing
  • Management of acute myocardial injury, including monitoring, specialty care, and critical care considerations
  • Guidance on use of medications to treat COVID-19 in patients with myocardial injury

COVID-19 rapid guideline: antibiotics for pneumonia in adults in hospital

Date: 2020 May 1
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Adult patients hospitalized with pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and the role of decision support tools
  • Use of laboratory testing and imaging to guide treatment decisions
  • Factors suggesting the need for antibiotic treatment
  • Antibiotic choice, route, and dosing considerations for community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia
  • Use of clinical, laboratory, and imaging information to guide duration and discontinuation of antibiotics
  • Role of specialists in care and need for future research

COVID-19 rapid guideline: arranging planned care in hospitals and diagnostic services

Date: 2020 Jul 27
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Deliver efficient planned care in hospitals and diagnostic services during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring planned care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Role of shared decision making and planning
  • Patient preparation
  • Risk mitigation, symptom assessment, and COVID testing prior to anesthesia
  • Workflow modifications and infection prevention
  • Follow-up testing and arrangements
  • Risk assessment and isolation practices for health care workers

COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing suspected or confirmed pneumonia in adults in the community

Date: 2020 Apr 3
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Managing suspected or confirmed pneumonia in COVID-19 patients

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19 and suspected or confirmed pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and infection prevention
  • Treatment planning, advance directives, and decision support tools
  • Diagnosing pneumonia and assessing severity including use of assessment tools
  • Differentiating viral COVID-19 pneumonia from bacterial pneumonia
  • Assessing the need for hospital admission
  • Management of breathlessness, antibiotic treatment, and guidance on the use of oral corticosteroids
  • Anticipatory guidance and reassessment

COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing symptoms (including at the end of life) in the community

Date: 2020 Apr 3
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Managing COVID-19 patients in the community

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and infection prevention
  • Treatment planning, advance directives, and anticipating care escalation
  • General management principles
  • Treatment options for cough, fever, breathlessness, anxiety, delirium, and agitation
  • Prescribing, ordering, supplying, transporting, storing, and disposing of medicines
  • Prescribing and supplying medicines at the end of life
  • Infection control and PPE considerations for healthcare workers

COVID-19 rapid guideline: severe asthma

Date: 2020 Apr 3
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Management of patients with severe asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with severe asthma

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and infection prevention
  • Considerations for bronchoscopy and pulmonary function tests
  • Management of biological treatments and corticosteroids
  • Care of respiratory equipment
  • Modifications to usual care

CSC expert consensus on principles of clinical management of patients with severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 epidemic

Date: 2020 May 19
Developer: Chinese Society of Cardiology (CSC)

Guideline Focus
Management of severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients presenting with severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Triaging of patients presenting to the ED
  • Risk assessment and protective measures for patients and staff
  • Medical therapy considerations directed by presenting conditions
  • Performance of invasive interventional procedures, including infection control
  • Perioperative management, including infection control
  • Laboratory testing and imaging
  • Referral between hospitals, use of telemedicine, and assessing the need for psychological intervention

DoD COVID-19 practice management guide: clinical management of COVID-19. Version 4.0

Date: 2020 Jun 18
Developer: Department of Defense (DoD)

Guideline Focus
Optimize DoD response to the current COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Neonatal, pediatric, and adult patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Clinical presentation and course
  • Planning, screening, triage, and infection control
  • Diagnostic considerations, including laboratory and imaging studies
  • Management of disease based on severity (e.g., asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, critical), including pharmacological interventions and prevention of complications
  • Considerations for coinfections, special populations (e.g., pregnant, children, elderly), palliative care, behavioral health, rehabilitation, and surgical care
  • Operational and systemic considerations, including EMS, public health, telemedicine, and government response

ELSA recommendations for minimally invasive surgery during a community spread pandemic: a centered approach in Asia from widespread to recovery phases

Date: 2020 Aug
Developer: Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of Asia (ELSA)

Guideline Focus
Minimally invasive surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring minimally invasive surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Modifications to elective surgery scheduling, pre-surgical assessment, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) based on community spread (i.e., active, limited, times of sporadic cases or recovery)
  • Considerations for emergency surgery
  • Guidance on environment (i.e., operating room), staffing, and infection control
  • Technical considerations for laparoscopic surgery, including smoke evacuation

Enteral tube feeding safety in COVID-19 patients

Date: 2020 May 13
Developer: British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN)

Guideline Focus
Enteral tube feeding safety in patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Nutritional support considerations
  • Safe feeding tube placement practices, including indications for X-ray, pH testing, and need for specialized staff
  • Feeding tube maintenance and considerations for prone positioned patients
  • Feeding method options
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by staff

ESPEN expert statements and practical guidance for nutritional management of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Date: 2020 Jun
Developer: European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN)

Guideline Focus
Nutritional management of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Prevention of and screening for malnutrition in high-risk patients
  • Optimization of nutritional status and maintenance of physical activity
  • Indications for oral nutritional supplements, enteral nutrition, and parenteral nutrition
  • Considerations for intubated and non-intubated ICU patients
  • Management of post-intubation swallowing disorder

Guidance for discharge and ending isolation in the context of widespread community transmission of COVID-19

Date: 2020 Apr 8
Developer: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

Guideline Focus
Guidance for discharge and ending isolation of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Discharge criteria for hospitalized patients based on clinical criteria and testing
  • Considerations for specific discharge destinations and immunocompromised patients
  • Clinical criteria for ending self-isolation in non-hospitalized patients, including first responders
  • Self-isolation guidance for family members, caregivers, and contacts of patients
  • Review of criteria for ending isolation by country

Guidelines: anaesthesia in the context of COVID-19 pandemic

Date: 2020 Jun 5
Developer: French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (SFAR)

Guideline Focus
Use of anesthesia during COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Pediatric and adult patients requiring anesthesia during COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE), infection control measures, patient movement, and isolation measures
  • Assessing and documenting risk/benefit ratio of surgery
  • Preoperative assessment and decision making
  • Use of telemedicine for preanesthetic patient evaluation
  • Modifications to anesthesia delivery
  • Considerations for resumption of surgical activity following the pandemic

Home care for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and management of their contacts: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Aug 12
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Home management of patients with COVID-19 and their contacts

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 and their contacts being managed at home

Major Interventions

  • Clinical evaluation of patient and assessment of disease severity
  • Treatment setting considerations for confirmed and suspected cases and assessment of home setting
  • Personal hygiene, infection prevention measures, waste management, and establishing a link to health care setting for patients in home isolation
  • Drug supply management for patients with chronic diseases
  • Palliative care in the home setting
  • Isolation considerations for patients and contacts
  • Management of patients who become symptomatic

Infection prevention and control and preparedness for COVID-19 in healthcare settings

Date: 2020 Jul 3
Developer: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention and control for COVID-19

Patient Population
Suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients and healthcare personnel

Major Interventions

  • Triage and initial assessment of patients
  • Optimized use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Safe collection of diagnostic respiratory samples
  • Patient isolation and transport
  • Performance of aerosol generating procedures
  • Administrative, environmental, and staffing considerations for hospitals and long-term care facilities

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with COVID-19. Version 3.1.0

Date: 2020 Sep 4
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine with or without azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, famotidine, and corticosteroids
  • Role and dosing duration of remdesivir and glucocorticoids for hospitalized patients with severe disease

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the diagnosis of COVID-19. Version 1.0.1

Date: 2020 May 6
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Diagnosis of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Method, type, and number of tests for symptomatic patients
  • Collection of samples and specimen type considerations
  • Testing of asymptomatic individuals exposed to COVID-19
  • Guidance on testing asymptomatic individuals being admitted to the hospital with no known COVID-19 exposure
  • Testing for special populations, including asymptomatic immunosuppressed individuals and those presenting for surgery and/or aerosol-generating procedures

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the diagnosis of COVID-19: serologic testing. Version 1.0

Date: 2020 Aug 18
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Serologic testing for the diagnosis of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with suspected COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Timing considerations of serologic testing
  • Choice of serologic test
  • Role of serology in supplementing nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)
  • Guidance on use of capillary vs. venous blood

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on infection prevention in patients with suspected or known COVID-19. Version 1.0.1

Date: 2020 Apr 30
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention in patients with suspected or known COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use of N95 or surgical masks for routine patient care in conventional and crisis capacity settings
  • Considerations for single vs. double gloving and the use of shoe covers
  • Use, reuse, and extended use of N95 and surgical masks with and without face shields for aerosol-generating procedures in conventional and crisis capacity settings

Infection prevention and control during health care when coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is suspected or confirmed: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Jun 29
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention and control during health care when COVID-19 is suspected

Patient Population
Patients with suspected COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Screening, triage, recognition, isolation practices, and maintaining a high level of suspicion
  • Use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), hand hygiene, and standard precautions for all patients
  • Use of contact and droplet precautions, cohorting of patients, and treatment teams to minimize spread within facilities
  • Administrative, environmental, and engineering controls
  • Role of airborne precautions for aerosol-generating procedures
  • Considerations for surgical procedures and outpatient care
  • Management of samples from confirmed or suspected patients and from cadavers

Initial public health response and interim clinical guidance for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak - United States, December 31, 2019-February 4, 2020

Date: 2020 Feb 7
Developer: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Guideline Focus
Initial public health response and interim clinical guidance for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak

Major Interventions

  • Epidemiology of first US cases, and public health response
  • Laboratory, diagnostic support, and availability of genomic data
  • Clinical and infection control guidance, including personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Guidance on influenza vaccination to decrease confusion, and promote efficient use of resources
  • Treatment options including antiviral therapy, immunosuppressive agents, steroids, and immunomodulators

Interim guidance for basic and advanced life support in adults, children, and neonates with suspected or confirmed COVID-19: from the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and Get With the Guidelines ®-Resuscitation Adult and Pediatric Task Forces of the American Heart Association in collaboration with the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Respiratory Care, American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists, and American Society of Anesthesiologists

Date: 2020 Jun 23
Developer: American Heart Association (AHA)/American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)/American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC)/American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP)/Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists (SCCA)/American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)

Guideline Focus
Basic and advanced life support for COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult, pediatric, and neonate patients with cardiac arrest with suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Risk reduction strategies for health care workers
  • Prioritization of oxygenation and ventilation strategies with lower aerosolization rate
  • Determining appropriateness of starting and continuing resuscitation
  • Considerations for lay rescuers and EMS workers
  • Considerations for inpatients experiencing cardiac arrest, neonatal resuscitation, and management of maternal cardiac arrest
  • Algorithms for clinical scenarios for patients with COVID-19

ISTH interim guidance on recognition and management of coagulopathy in COVID-19

Date: 2020 May
Developer: International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH)

Guideline Focus
Management of COVID-19 coagulopathy

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Role of universal coagulation marker measurement at admission and appropriate test selection
  • Monitoring and prognostic use of coagulation markers in hospitalized patients
  • Use of prophylactic low molecular weight heparin in hospitalized patients
  • Algorithm for management of coagulopathy in COVID-19 based on simple laboratory markers

Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: CHEST guideline and Expert Panel report

Date: 2020 Jun 2
Developer: American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST)

Guideline Focus
Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 and VTE

Major Interventions

  • Indications for, choice, and dosing of thromboprophylaxis
  • Guidance surrounding mechanical prophylaxis and extended thromboprohylaxis after hospital discharge
  • Screening for and treatment of proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)
  • Considerations for recurrent VTE

Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and considerations during severe shortages: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Apr 6
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Preventive measures for health care workers
  • Supply chain management and coordination
  • Minimizing the need for PPE and promoting rational supply use
  • Type of PPE according to setting, personnel, and type of activity
  • Guidance on handling of cargo from affected countries

Rehabilitation programs for patients with coronavirus disease 2019: consensus statements of Taiwan Academy of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Date: 2020 Aug 17
Developer: Taiwan Academy of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (TACVPR)

Guideline Focus
Rehabilitation programs for patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with current or recent COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Rehabilitation principles for outpatients stratified by presence of risk factors
  • Interventions for hospitalized patients, including ventilator-supported patients with and without impaired cognition

Remdesivir for severe covid-19: a clinical practice guideline

Date: 2020 Jul 30
Developer: MAGIC-BMJ

Guideline Focus
Severe COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with severe COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use of remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19
  • Need for continued controlled trials

Respiratory support in patients with COVID-19 (outside intensive care unit). A position paper of the Respiratory Support and Chronic Care Group of the French Society of Respiratory Diseases

Date: 2020 May 27
Developer: French Society of Respiratory Diseases (SPLF)

Guideline Focus
Respiratory care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support

Major Interventions

  • Use of oxygen therapy and target pulse oximetry levels
  • Modes of invasive and noninvasive ventilation, including advantages and disadvantages of each
  • Guidance on use of nebulized medications and tracheal aspirations
  • Approach to patient management
  • Management algorithm for COVID-related acute respiratory failure

The role of chest imaging in patient management during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multinational consensus statement from the Fleischner Society

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: Fleischner Society (FS)

Guideline Focus
Role of chest imaging in management of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) based on clinical features and respiratory status
  • Considerations for resource-constrained environments
  • Guidance on use of daily chest radiographs in intubated patients
  • Role of chest CT for patients with functional impairment or hypoxemia following recovery
  • Diagnostic testing for patients incidentally noted to have typical findings of COVID-19 on chest CT

Route of nutrition support in patients requiring NIV & CPAP during the COVID-19 response

Date: 2020 Apr 17
Developer: British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN); British Dietetic Association (BDA); National Nurses Nutrition Group (NNNG); British Thoracic Society (BTS); Intensive Care Society (ICS)

Guideline Focus
Route of nutrition support for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Equipment considerations
  • Monitoring for and management of gastric distention
  • Patient positioning and role of prokinetic agents
  • Considerations for nasojejunal (NJ) tube placement
  • Role of, indications for, and considerations surrounding parenteral nutrition

SARS CoV-2

Date: 2020 May 14
Developer: American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC)

Guideline Focus
Respiratory care for patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Type of supplement oxygen delivery, mechanical ventilation, and setting considerations, including use of heated humidification
  • Use of prone positioning, CPAP and bilevel devices as ventilators, and triaging of ventilator equipment
  • Guidance on ventilation of multiple patients with a single ventilator, use of artificial resuscitators, and administration of inhaled or aerosolized vasodilators

Should clinicians use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19? Living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1)

Date: 2020 Jul 21
Developer: American College of Physicians (ACP)

Guideline Focus
Use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 exposure or disease

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19
  • Guidance on role of clinical trials for hospitalized patients

The Stanford Hall consensus statement for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation

Date: 2020 May 31
Developer: Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre (DMRC)

Guideline Focus
Post COVID-19 rehabilitation

Patient Population
Adult patients who are active, including military personnel and athletes, recovering from COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • General rehabilitation principles, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE), treatment goals, and patient education
  • Specific assessments and interventions by system, including pulmonary, cardiac, psychological, musculoskeletal, and neurologic
  • Exercise rehabilitation considerations for recovering patients and asymptomatic contacts
  • Medical rehabilitation management, including specialty referral

Surgical Infection Society guidance for operative and peri-operative care of adult patients infected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Date: 2020 May
Developer: Surgical Infection Society (SIS)

Guideline Focus
Operative and peri-operative care of adult patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19 requiring surgical intervention

Major Interventions

  • Organization of operating room flow, including environmental and personnel considerations
  • Perioperative considerations, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and modifications for high-risk procedures, including endotracheal intubation, endoscopy, tracheostomy, and laparoscopy
  • Sequence and procedure for removal of surgical attire and PPE
  • Surgical smoke evacuation and operating room cleaning and disinfection
  • Management of potentially exposed health care workers

Surgery in COVID-19 patients: operational directives

Date: 2020 Apr 7
Developer: National Congress of Italian Hospital Surgeons (ACOI)/Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC)/Italian Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery (SICUT)/Italian Society of Surgical Oncology (SICO)/Italian Surgical Society for Elderly People (SICG)/Italian Society of Surgical Pathophysiology (SIFIPAC)/Italian Society of Endoscopic Surgery (SICE)/Italian Society of Anaesthesia Analgesia Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI)

Guideline Focus
Surgery in COVID-19 patients

Patient Population
Patients requiring surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Necessary personal protective equipment (PPE) and removal procedures
  • Considerations for patient transport and post-operative monitoring
  • Location, preparation, staffing, management, and sanitization of COVID operating area
  • Anesthesiology considerations
  • Waste disposal and linen management

The use of bronchoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic: CHEST/AABIP guideline and Expert Panel report

Date: 2020 Sep
Developer: American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST)/American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology (AABIP)

Guideline Focus
Role of bronchoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring bronchoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) in procedure and recovery rooms
  • Use of nasopharyngeal testing for patients with suspected COVID-19 and indications for proceeding with bronchoscopy
  • Pre-bronchoscopy testing for COVID-19 in asymptomatic patients
  • Considerations for patients with known or suspected lung cancer
  • Timing of routine bronchoscopy following COVID-19 infection

Use of chest imaging in COVID-19: a rapid advice guide

Date: 2020 Jun 11
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of chest imaging in acute care of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 disease

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of chest imaging for diagnosis in asymptomatic patients
  • Criteria for diagnostic chest imaging in symptomatic patients
  • Choice of imaging modality
  • Role of chest imaging for assessment and management in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19
  • Guidance on use of chest imaging in recovered hospitalized patients to inform discharge readiness

Use of N95, surgical, and cloth masks to prevent COVID-19 in health care and community settings: living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1)

Date: 2020 Jun 18
Developer: American College of Physicians (ACP)

Guideline Focus
Effectiveness of masks for the prevention of COVID-19 transmission

Patient Population
All patients, health care staff, and community members during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Role of N95 respirators, surgical masks, and cloth masks in community and health care settings
  • Guidance on reuse and extended use of N95 respirators in health care settings

Treatment of patients with nonsevere and severe coronavirus disease 2019: an evidence-based guideline

Date: 2020 May 19
Developer: McMaster University

Guideline Focus
Treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Role of corticosteroids in treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Guidance on use of corticosteroids in patients without ARDS
  • Guidance on use of antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, and interferons in patients with severe and nonsevere disease

Return to the ECRI COVID-19 Resource Center