COVID-19 Clinical Guidelines–General

If we can assist your organization in the battle against COVID-19, whether or not you are a current member, please contact us today at clientservices@ecri.org.

ACR statement on safe resumption of routine radiology care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: American College of Radiology (ACR)

Guideline Focus
Resumption of routine radiology care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring routine radiology studies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Enactment of safety measures, including personal protective equipment (PPE) use, social distancing, and telehealth
  • Deferment of routine care when indicated by local pandemic statistics
  • Risk-benefit analysis and development of a tiered plan for return to routine care
  • Provision of care that was previously delayed/deferred
  • Management of patient and staff anxiety

Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Jun 5
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of medical masks in communities, at home, and in health care facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Community masking guidance for those with and without respiratory symptoms
  • Use of medical masks for those with suspected or documented COVID-19 illness who are being managed at home, and for their caregivers
  • Use of medical masks by health care workers in health care facilities and the community
  • Role of respirators in specific clinical care circumstances
  • Guidance on type of mask and mask management, including proper use, removal, and disposal

AGA Institute rapid review of the GI and liver manifestations of COVID-19, meta-analysis of international data, and recommendations for the consultative management of patients with COVID-19

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute

Guideline Focus
Gastrointestinal (GI) and liver manifestations of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Assessment and management of new onset GI symptoms in outpatients
  • Evaluation of GI symptoms in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
  • Guidance on use of stool testing for COVID-19
  • Monitoring and management of elevated liver function tests (LFTs)
  • Treatment-related GI and hepatic adverse effects

Antigen-detection in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection using rapid immunoassays: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Sep 11
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Role of antigen-detecting RDTs in the diagnosis of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with or at risk for COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Criteria for use of rapid immunoassays, including in addition to or instead of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT)
  • Selection of a specific rapid immunoassay test and considerations for implementation
  • Role of rapid immunoassays in case management and surveillance
  • Factors influencing test performance and circumstances where rapid immunoassays should not be used

ASE statement on protection of patients and echocardiography service providers during the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak

Date: 2020 Apr 1
Developer: American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)

Guideline Focus
Protection of patients and echocardiography service providers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring echocardiography during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Indications for transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram
  • Location of study and screening of outpatients
  • Protocol for echocardiogram technique, and exclusion of learners and at-risk staff
  • Cleaning and disinfecting of equipment and exam rooms

Australian guidelines for the clinical care of people with COVID-19. Version 28.2

Date: 2020 Nov 18
Developer: National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Task Force (NC19CETF)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Definitions of disease severity in adults and children (mild, moderate, severe, critical)
  • Monitoring and markers of clinical deterioration
  • Guidance on disease-modifying treatments for adults, children, and pregnant or breastfeeding women, including corticosteroids, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, interferon β-1a, and lopinavir-ritonavir
  • Guidance on disease-modifying treatments not recommended outside of clinical trials, including aprepitant, azithromycin, baloxavir marboxil, bromhexine hydrochloride, calcifediol, chloroquine, colchicine, convalescent plasma, darunavir-cobicistat, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, immunoglobulin plus methylprednisolone, interferon β-1b, interferon gamma, interferon kappa plus trefoil factor 2 (IFN-κ plus TFF2), ivermectin, N-acetylcysteine, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, ruxolitinib, sofosbuvir-daclatasvir, telmisartan, tocilizumab, triazavirin, umifenovir, and other disease modifying agents
  • Guidance surrounding chemoprophylaxis following exposure
  • Respiratory support considerations, including high-flow nasal oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation, respiratory management of the deteriorating patient, videolaryngoscopy, neuromuscular blockers, positive end-expiratory pressure, prone positioning, recruitment manoeuvres, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis considerations
  • Continuation of anti-hypertensive medications in patients with COVID-19, including people with asthma and COPD, and postpartum women
  • Guidance on pregnancy care, including antenatal corticosteroids, mode of birth, delayed umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and rooming-in of mother and newborn
  • Management and treatment of children and adolescents with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS-TS), including intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid considerations

British Thoracic Society guidance on respiratory follow up of patients with a clinico-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia

Date: 2020 May 11
Developer: British Thoracic Society (BTS)

Guideline Focus
Radiological follow up of the pneumonic process and the subsequent diagnosis and management of respiratory complications of COVID-19 pneumonia

Patient Population
Patients with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Follow up clinical, radiological and investigational evaluation algorithm for patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, including those requiring ICU care
  • Follow up clinical, radiological, and investigational evaluation algorithm for patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 pneumonia who were hospitalized or cared for at home
  • Team management approach and role of telehealth

Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Date: 2020 Aug 19
Developer: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM)

Guideline Focus
Occupational health and treatment considerations for COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Employer considerations, including risk mitigation strategies, isolation, and return-to-work protocols
  • Management strategies for schools and specific industries
  • Disease spread, diagnostic testing considerations, and disease categories
  • Treatment options, including antivirals, IL-6 receptor antagonists, convalescent antibodies, glucocorticoids, vitamin D, and zinc
  • Guidance on use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine for treatment or prophylaxis, and azithromycin

Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) treatment guidelines

Date: 2020 Nov 18
Developer: National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Nucleic acid amplification, virologic, and serologic testing considerations for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • Guidance on use of prophylactic medications before or after exposure
  • Infection control and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers
  • Treatment of critically ill patients, including laboratory testing, hemodynamics, oxygenation and ventilation, acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy, pharmacotherapy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Antiviral drugs that are approved or under evaluation for treatment of COVID-19, including remdesivir, chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, ivermectin, lopinavir/ritonavir and other HIV protease inhibitors
  • Immune-based therapy under evaluation for treatment of COVID-19, including blood-derived products—convalescent plasma, immunoglobulins (SARS-CoV-2 specific and non-SARS-CoV-2 specific), mesenchymal stem cells; and immunomodulators—corticosteroids (i.e., dexamethasone), interferons (alfa, beta), interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 inhibitors, kinase inhibitors
  • Guidance surrounding adjunctive therapy with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc
  • Antithrombotic therapy, including laboratory testing, management of chronic therapy, venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis and screening, treatment, and considerations in pregnancy
  • Considerations surrounding use and discontinuation of antihypertensives, corticosteroids, statins, and antiinflammatory medications
  • Special considerations for pregnancy, children, adults and children with cancer, solid organ transplant, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, cellular therapy candidates, donors and recipients, and people with HIV
  • Guidance on influenza vaccination, and diagnosis and treatment when influenza and SARS-CoV-2 are co-circulating
  • Evaluation of bamlanivimab for treatment of COVID-19

Corticosteroids for COVID-19: living guidance

Date: 2020 Sep 2
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Role of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Role of corticosteroids for patients with severe or critical COVID-19
  • Guidance on use of corticosteroids for patients with non-severe COVID-19

COVID-19 coronavirus disease guidelines. Version 1.3

Date: 2020 May
Developer: Saudi Center for Disease Prevention and Control (SaudiCDC)

Guideline Focus
Detection and prevention of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Definitions of suspected and confirmed cases
  • Infection prevention and control measures, and considerations for patient transport
  • Laboratory diagnosis and sample handling
  • Public health considerations, including contact tracing, surveillance, and isolation management
  • Human-animal interface, points of entry, traveler health, and managing of deceased bodies

COVID-19 guidelines. Version 2

Date: 2020 Apr 15
Developer: Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS)

Guideline Focus
COVID-19 pandemic planning

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Development of ICU pandemic plans, including decreasing ICU demand and increasing capacity
  • Considerations for remote, rural, and regional areas
  • Management of rapid response and code blue teams, patient transport, and critically ill patients in the emergency department
  • Infection control, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and engineering controls
  • Management of staff, including attention to wellbeing

COVID-19 infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest

Date: 2020 Sep 10
Developer: International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR)

Guideline Focus
Infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest

Patient Population
Known or suspected COVID-19 patients in cardiac arrest

Major Interventions

  • Generation of aerosols by CPR and chest compressions
  • Lay rescuer resuscitation guidance for adults and children during the COVID-19 pandemic
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers performing aerosol generating procedures during resuscitation
  • Role of defibrillation prior to donning PPE

COVID-19 position statement: reducing the risk of postoperative mortality due to COVID-19 in patients undergoing elective surgery

Date: 2020 Aug 21
Developer: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

Guideline Focus
Assessment and isolation of patients prior to all elective surgery to reduce the risk of postoperative mortality due to COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and paediatric patients undergoing elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Patient communication and discussion of risk
  • Risk mitigation and presurgical preparation
  • Presurgical screening and COVID-19 testing, including testing method considerations
  • Management of positive preoperative COVID-19 testing
  • Postoperative and post discharge advice and management
  • Considerations for special populations, including paediatric, pregnant, and cancer patients

COVID-19 rapid guideline: acute kidney injury in hospital

Date: 2020 May 6
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Prevent, detect and manage acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients who are hospitalized with COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and families, risk reduction, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Treatment planning and monitoring for progression to chronic kidney disease
  • Prevention of acute kidney injury and monitoring for development, including attention to fluid balance
  • Diagnostic testing considerations and management of hyperkalemia
  • Criteria for specialty referral and renal replacement therapy considerations

COVID-19 rapid guideline: acute myocardial injury

Date: 2020 Apr 23
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Acute myocardial injury in COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 and acute myocardial injury

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and patient isolation
  • Clinical presentation and diagnostic testing
  • Management of acute myocardial injury, including monitoring, specialty care, and critical care considerations
  • Guidance on use of medications to treat COVID-19 in patients with myocardial injury

COVID-19 rapid guideline: antibiotics for pneumonia in adults in hospital

Date: 2020 May 1
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Adult patients hospitalized with pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and the role of decision support tools
  • Use of laboratory testing and imaging to guide treatment decisions
  • Factors suggesting the need for antibiotic treatment
  • Antibiotic choice, route, and dosing considerations for community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia
  • Use of clinical, laboratory, and imaging information to guide duration and discontinuation of antibiotics
  • Role of specialists in care and need for future research

COVID-19 rapid guideline: arranging planned care in hospitals and diagnostic services

Date: 2020 Jul 27
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Deliver efficient planned care in hospitals and diagnostic services during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring planned care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Role of shared decision making and planning
  • Patient preparation
  • Risk mitigation, symptom assessment, and COVID testing prior to anesthesia
  • Workflow modifications and infection prevention
  • Follow-up testing and arrangements
  • Risk assessment and isolation practices for health care workers

COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing suspected or confirmed pneumonia in adults in the community

Date: 2020 Apr 3
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Managing suspected or confirmed pneumonia in COVID-19 patients

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19 and suspected or confirmed pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and infection prevention
  • Treatment planning, advance directives, and decision support tools
  • Diagnosing pneumonia and assessing severity including use of assessment tools
  • Differentiating viral COVID-19 pneumonia from bacterial pneumonia
  • Assessing the need for hospital admission
  • Management of breathlessness, antibiotic treatment, and guidance on the use of oral corticosteroids
  • Anticipatory guidance and reassessment

COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing symptoms (including at the end of life) in the community

Date: 2020 Apr 3
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Managing COVID-19 patients in the community

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and infection prevention
  • Treatment planning, advance directives, and anticipating care escalation
  • General management principles
  • Treatment options for cough, fever, breathlessness, anxiety, delirium, and agitation
  • Prescribing, ordering, supplying, transporting, storing, and disposing of medicines
  • Prescribing and supplying medicines at the end of life
  • Infection control and PPE considerations for healthcare workers

CSC expert consensus on principles of clinical management of patients with severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 epidemic

Date: 2020 May 19
Developer: Chinese Society of Cardiology (CSC)

Guideline Focus
Management of severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients presenting with severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Triaging of patients presenting to the ED
  • Risk assessment and protective measures for patients and staff
  • Medical therapy considerations directed by presenting conditions
  • Performance of invasive interventional procedures, including infection control
  • Perioperative management, including infection control
  • Laboratory testing and imaging
  • Referral between hospitals, use of telemedicine, and assessing the need for psychological intervention

Diagnostic work up of the patient presenting with respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic

Date: 2020 Sep 17
Developer: Primary Care Respiratory Society (PCRS)

Guideline Focus
Evaluation of respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Role of safe and comprehensive structured clinical assessment of respiratory symptoms
  • Management of patients with a likely diagnosis of asthma
  • Evaluation of patients with suspected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

DoD COVID-19 practice management guide: clinical management of COVID-19. Version 4.0

Date: 2020 Jun 18
Developer: Department of Defense (DoD)

Guideline Focus
Optimize DoD response to the current COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Neonatal, pediatric, and adult patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Clinical presentation and course
  • Planning, screening, triage, and infection control
  • Diagnostic considerations, including laboratory and imaging studies
  • Management of disease based on severity (e.g., asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, critical), including pharmacological interventions and prevention of complications
  • Considerations for coinfections, special populations (e.g., pregnant, children, elderly), palliative care, behavioral health, rehabilitation, and surgical care
  • Operational and systemic considerations, including EMS, public health, telemedicine, and government response

ELSA recommendations for minimally invasive surgery during a community spread pandemic: a centered approach in Asia from widespread to recovery phases

Date: 2020 Aug
Developer: Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of Asia (ELSA)

Guideline Focus
Minimally invasive surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring minimally invasive surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Modifications to elective surgery scheduling, pre-surgical assessment, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) based on community spread (i.e., active, limited, times of sporadic cases or recovery)
  • Considerations for emergency surgery
  • Guidance on environment (i.e., operating room), staffing, and infection control
  • Technical considerations for laparoscopic surgery, including smoke evacuation

Enteral tube feeding safety in COVID-19 patients

Date: 2020 May 13
Developer: British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN)

Guideline Focus
Enteral tube feeding safety in patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Nutritional support considerations
  • Safe feeding tube placement practices, including indications for X-ray, pH testing, and need for specialized staff
  • Feeding tube maintenance and considerations for prone positioned patients
  • Feeding method options
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by staff

ESPEN expert statements and practical guidance for nutritional management of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Date: 2020 Jun
Developer: European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN)

Guideline Focus
Nutritional management of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Prevention of and screening for malnutrition in high-risk patients
  • Optimization of nutritional status and maintenance of physical activity
  • Indications for oral nutritional supplements, enteral nutrition, and parenteral nutrition
  • Considerations for intubated and non-intubated ICU patients
  • Management of post-intubation swallowing disorder

Guidance for discharge and ending isolation in the context of widespread community transmission of COVID-19

Date: 2020 Apr 8
Developer: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

Guideline Focus
Guidance for discharge and ending isolation of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Discharge criteria for hospitalized patients based on clinical criteria and testing
  • Considerations for specific discharge destinations and immunocompromised patients
  • Clinical criteria for ending self-isolation in non-hospitalized patients, including first responders
  • Self-isolation guidance for family members, caregivers, and contacts of patients
  • Review of criteria for ending isolation by country

Guidelines: anaesthesia in the context of COVID-19 pandemic

Date: 2020 Jun 5
Developer: French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (SFAR)

Guideline Focus
Use of anesthesia during COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Pediatric and adult patients requiring anesthesia during COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE), infection control measures, patient movement, and isolation measures
  • Assessing and documenting risk/benefit ratio of surgery
  • Preoperative assessment and decision making
  • Use of telemedicine for preanesthetic patient evaluation
  • Modifications to anesthesia delivery
  • Considerations for resumption of surgical activity following the pandemic

Home care for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and management of their contacts: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Aug 12
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Home management of patients with COVID-19 and their contacts

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 and their contacts being managed at home

Major Interventions

  • Clinical evaluation of patient and assessment of disease severity
  • Treatment setting considerations for confirmed and suspected cases and assessment of home setting
  • Personal hygiene, infection prevention measures, waste management, and establishing a link to health care setting for patients in home isolation
  • Drug supply management for patients with chronic diseases
  • Palliative care in the home setting
  • Isolation considerations for patients and contacts
  • Management of patients who become symptomatic

Infection prevention and control and preparedness for COVID-19 in healthcare settings

Date: 2020 Jul 3
Developer: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention and control for COVID-19

Patient Population
Suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients and healthcare personnel

Major Interventions

  • Triage and initial assessment of patients
  • Optimized use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Safe collection of diagnostic respiratory samples
  • Patient isolation and transport
  • Performance of aerosol generating procedures
  • Administrative, environmental, and staffing considerations for hospitals and long-term care facilities

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with COVID-19. Version 3.4

Date: 2020 Nov 18
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine with or without azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, famotidine, and corticosteroids
  • Role and dosing duration of remdesivir and glucocorticoids for hospitalized patients with severe disease
  • Summary of treatments undergoing evaluation

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the diagnosis of COVID-19. Version 1.0.1

Date: 2020 May 6
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Diagnosis of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Method, type, and number of tests for symptomatic patients
  • Collection of samples and specimen type considerations
  • Testing of asymptomatic individuals exposed to COVID-19
  • Guidance on testing asymptomatic individuals being admitted to the hospital with no known COVID-19 exposure
  • Testing for special populations, including asymptomatic immunosuppressed individuals and those presenting for surgery and/or aerosol-generating procedures

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the diagnosis of COVID-19: serologic testing. Version 1.0

Date: 2020 Aug 18
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Serologic testing for the diagnosis of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with suspected COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Timing considerations of serologic testing
  • Choice of serologic test
  • Role of serology in supplementing nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)
  • Guidance on use of capillary vs. venous blood

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on infection prevention in patients with suspected or known COVID-19. Version 1.0.1

Date: 2020 Apr 30
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention in patients with suspected or known COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use of N95 or surgical masks for routine patient care in conventional and crisis capacity settings
  • Considerations for single vs. double gloving and the use of shoe covers
  • Use, reuse, and extended use of N95 and surgical masks with and without face shields for aerosol-generating procedures in conventional and crisis capacity settings

Infection prevention and control during health care when coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is suspected or confirmed: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Jun 29
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention and control during health care when COVID-19 is suspected

Patient Population
Patients with suspected COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Screening, triage, recognition, isolation practices, and maintaining a high level of suspicion
  • Use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), hand hygiene, and standard precautions for all patients
  • Use of contact and droplet precautions, cohorting of patients, and treatment teams to minimize spread within facilities
  • Administrative, environmental, and engineering controls
  • Role of airborne precautions for aerosol-generating procedures
  • Considerations for surgical procedures and outpatient care
  • Management of samples from confirmed or suspected patients and from cadavers

Initial public health response and interim clinical guidance for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak - United States, December 31, 2019-February 4, 2020

Date: 2020 Feb 7
Developer: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Guideline Focus
Initial public health response and interim clinical guidance for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak

Major Interventions

  • Epidemiology of first US cases, and public health response
  • Laboratory, diagnostic support, and availability of genomic data
  • Clinical and infection control guidance, including personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Guidance on influenza vaccination to decrease confusion, and promote efficient use of resources
  • Treatment options including antiviral therapy, immunosuppressive agents, steroids, and immunomodulators

Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: CHEST guideline and Expert Panel report

Date: 2020 Sep
Developer: American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST)

Guideline Focus
Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Indications for choice and dosing of thromboprophylaxis
  • Guidance surrounding mechanical prophylaxis and extended thromboprohylaxis after hospital discharge
  • Screening for and treatment of proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)
  • Considerations for recurrent VTE

Prevention, identification and management of health worker infection in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Oct 30
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Prevention, surveillance, and testing of COVID-19 in health workers, including management following exposure and eventual safe return to work

Patient Population
Health workers who have had suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Prevention strategies, including institutional programs (e.g., control, occupational health, safety)
  • Early detection interventions, including syndromic surveillance, testing following exposure, and routine testing
  • Management of exposure, infection, and return to work
  • Monitoring, studying, and reporting health worker infections, including assessment of risk factors and surveillance protocols

Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and considerations during severe shortages: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Apr 6
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Preventive measures for health care workers
  • Supply chain management and coordination
  • Minimizing the need for PPE and promoting rational supply use
  • Type of PPE according to setting, personnel, and type of activity
  • Guidance on handling of cargo from affected countries

Rehabilitation programs for patients with coronavirus disease 2019: consensus statements of Taiwan Academy of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Date: 2020 Aug 17
Developer: Taiwan Academy of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (TACVPR)

Guideline Focus
Rehabilitation programs for patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with current or recent COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Rehabilitation principles for outpatients stratified by presence of risk factors
  • Interventions for hospitalized patients, including ventilator-supported patients with and without impaired cognition

Remdesivir for severe covid-19: a clinical practice guideline

Date: 2020 Jul 30
Developer: MAGIC-BMJ

Guideline Focus
Severe COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with severe COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use of remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19
  • Need for continued controlled trials

Respiratory support in patients with COVID-19 (outside intensive care unit). A position paper of the Respiratory Support and Chronic Care Group of the French Society of Respiratory Diseases

Date: 2020 Nov
Developer: French Society of Respiratory Diseases (SPLF)

Guideline Focus
Respiratory care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support

Major Interventions

  • Use of oxygen therapy and target pulse oximetry levels
  • Modes of invasive and noninvasive ventilation, including advantages and disadvantages of each
  • Guidance on use of nebulized medications and tracheal aspirations
  • Approach to patient management
  • Management algorithm for COVID-related acute respiratory failure

Route of nutrition support in patients requiring NIV & CPAP during the COVID-19 response

Date: 2020 Apr 17
Developer: British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN); British Dietetic Association (BDA); National Nurses Nutrition Group (NNNG); British Thoracic Society (BTS); Intensive Care Society (ICS)

Guideline Focus
Route of nutrition support for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Equipment considerations
  • Monitoring for and management of gastric distention
  • Patient positioning and role of prokinetic agents
  • Considerations for nasojejunal (NJ) tube placement
  • Role of, indications for, and considerations surrounding parenteral nutrition

SARS CoV-2

Date: 2020 May 14
Developer: American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC)

Guideline Focus
Respiratory care for patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Type of supplement oxygen delivery, mechanical ventilation, and setting considerations, including use of heated humidification
  • Use of prone positioning, CPAP and bilevel devices as ventilators, and triaging of ventilator equipment
  • Guidance on ventilation of multiple patients with a single ventilator, use of artificial resuscitators, and administration of inhaled or aerosolized vasodilators

Scientific and Standardization Committee communication: clinical guidance on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Date: 2020 Aug
Developer: International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH)

Guideline Focus
Prevention and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients hospitalized with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Diagnostic techniques and guidance on use of bedside Doppler ultrasonography for screening
  • Use and duration of VTE prophylaxis in ICU and non-ICU hospitalized patients
  • Selective use of post-discharge thromboprophylaxis
  • Treatment considerations for patients with VTE

Should clinicians use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19? Living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1)

Date: 2020 Jul 21
Developer: American College of Physicians (ACP)

Guideline Focus
Use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 exposure or disease

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19
  • Guidance on role of clinical trials for hospitalized patients

Should remdesivir be used for the treatment of patients with COVID-19? Rapid, living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1)

Date: 2020 Oct 5
Developer: American College of Physicians (ACP)

Guideline Focus
Use of remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment

Patient Population
Nonpregnant patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use of remdesivir for treatment of moderate and severe COVID-19
  • Duration of use based on severity of disease

The Stanford Hall consensus statement for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation

Date: 2020 May 31
Developer: Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre (DMRC)

Guideline Focus
Post COVID-19 rehabilitation

Patient Population
Adult patients who are active, including military personnel and athletes, recovering from COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • General rehabilitation principles, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE), treatment goals, and patient education
  • Specific assessments and interventions by system, including pulmonary, cardiac, psychological, musculoskeletal, and neurologic
  • Exercise rehabilitation considerations for recovering patients and asymptomatic contacts
  • Medical rehabilitation management, including specialty referral

Surgical Infection Society guidance for operative and peri-operative care of adult patients infected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Date: 2020 May
Developer: Surgical Infection Society (SIS)

Guideline Focus
Operative and peri-operative care of adult patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19 requiring surgical intervention

Major Interventions

  • Organization of operating room flow, including environmental and personnel considerations
  • Perioperative considerations, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and modifications for high-risk procedures, including endotracheal intubation, endoscopy, tracheostomy, and laparoscopy
  • Sequence and procedure for removal of surgical attire and PPE
  • Surgical smoke evacuation and operating room cleaning and disinfection
  • Management of potentially exposed health care workers

Thromboembolism and anticoagulant therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic: interim clinical guidance from the Anticoagulation Forum

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: Anticoagulation Forum

Guideline Focus
Use of anticoagulant therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use and dosing of pharmacologic venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis for hospitalized patients
  • Role of mechanical VTE prophylaxis
  • Selective use of post-hospital pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis
  • Laboratory monitoring of unfractionated heparin dosing
  • Guidance on use of biomarkers to trigger care changes
  • Management of patients with a hospital-associated VTE event
  • Considerations for pediatric patients

Use of chest imaging in COVID-19: a rapid advice guide

Date: 2020 Jun 11
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of chest imaging in acute care of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 disease

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of chest imaging for diagnosis in asymptomatic patients
  • Criteria for diagnostic chest imaging in symptomatic patients
  • Choice of imaging modality
  • Role of chest imaging for assessment and management in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19
  • Guidance on use of chest imaging in recovered hospitalized patients to inform discharge readiness

Use of N95, surgical, and cloth masks to prevent COVID-19 in health care and community settings: living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1)

Date: 2020 Oct 20
Developer: American College of Physicians (ACP)

Guideline Focus
Effectiveness of masks for the prevention of COVID-19 transmission

Patient Population
All patients, health care staff, and community members during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Role of N95 respirators, surgical masks, and cloth masks in community and health care settings
  • Guidance on reuse and extended use of N95 respirators in health care settings

Treatment of patients with nonsevere and severe coronavirus disease 2019: an evidence-based guideline

Date: 2020 May 19
Developer: McMaster University

Guideline Focus
Treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Role of corticosteroids in treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Guidance on use of corticosteroids in patients without ARDS
  • Guidance on use of antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, and interferons in patients with severe and nonsevere disease

Return to the ECRI COVID-19 Resource Center