COVID-19 Clinical Guidelines–General

If we can assist your organization in the battle against COVID-19, whether or not you are a current member, please contact us today at clientservices@ecri.org.

ACR statement on safe resumption of routine radiology care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: American College of Radiology (ACR)

Guideline Focus
Resumption of routine radiology care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring routine radiology studies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Enactment of safety measures, including personal protective equipment (PPE) use, social distancing, and telehealth
  • Deferment of routine care when indicated by local pandemic statistics
  • Risk-benefit analysis and development of a tiered plan for return to routine care
  • Provision of care that was previously delayed/deferred
  • Management of patient and staff anxiety

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' interim recommendation for use of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine - United States, December 2020

Date: 2021 Jan 1
Developer: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Guideline Focus
Use of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine

Patient Population
Persons greater than or equal to 18 years

Major Interventions

  • Use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19
  • Reporting of vaccine adverse events

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' interim recommendation for use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine - United States, December 2020

Date: 2020 Dec 18
Developer: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Guideline Focus
Use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine

Patient Population
Persons aged greater than or equal to 16 years

Major Interventions

  • Use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19
  • Reporting of vaccine adverse events

AGA Institute rapid review of the GI and liver manifestations of COVID-19, meta-analysis of international data, and recommendations for the consultative management of patients with COVID-19

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute

Guideline Focus
Gastrointestinal (GI) and liver manifestations of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Assessment and management of new onset GI symptoms in outpatients
  • Evaluation of GI symptoms in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
  • Guidance on use of stool testing for COVID-19
  • Monitoring and management of elevated liver function tests (LFTs)
  • Treatment-related GI and hepatic adverse effects

American Society of Anesthesiologists and the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation statement on perioperative testing for the COVID-19 virus

Date: 2020 Dec 8
Developer: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)/Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF)

Guideline Focus
Perioperative testing for COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients undergoing non-emergent surgery

Major Interventions

  • Screening prior to presentation at health care facility
  • Management of elective surgery scheduling for patients with a positive test
  • Non-test-based management of patients following positive testing based on illness severity

Antigen-detection in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection using rapid immunoassays: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Sep 11
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Role of antigen-detecting RDTs in the diagnosis of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with or at risk for COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Criteria for use of rapid immunoassays, including in addition to or instead of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT)
  • Selection of a specific rapid immunoassay test and considerations for implementation
  • Role of rapid immunoassays in case management and surveillance
  • Factors influencing test performance and circumstances where rapid immunoassays should not be used

ASE statement on protection of patients and echocardiography service providers during the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak

Date: 2020 Apr 1
Developer: American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)

Guideline Focus
Protection of patients and echocardiography service providers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring echocardiography during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Indications for transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram
  • Location of study and screening of outpatients
  • Protocol for echocardiogram technique, and exclusion of learners and at-risk staff
  • Cleaning and disinfecting of equipment and exam rooms

Australian guidelines for the clinical care of people with COVID-19. Version 32.1

Date: 2020 Dec 23
Developer: National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Task Force (NC19CETF)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Definitions of disease severity in adults and children (mild, moderate, severe, critical)
  • Monitoring and markers of clinical deterioration
  • Guidance on disease-modifying treatments for adults, children, and pregnant or breastfeeding women, including corticosteroids, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, interferon β-1a, and lopinavir-ritonavir
  • Guidance on disease-modifying treatments not recommended outside of clinical trials, including aprepitant, azithromycin, baloxavir marboxil, bamlanivimab, bromhexine hydrochloride, chloroquine, colchicine, combined metabolic cofactor supplementation (CMCS), convalescent plasma, darunavir-cobicistat, dutasteride, favipiravir, fluvoxamine, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, interferon β-1b, interferon β-1b (inhaled), interferon gamma, interferon kappa plus trefoil factor 2 (IFN-κ plus TFF2), intravenous immunoglobulin with and without methylprednisolone, ivermectin, N-acetylcysteine, peginterferon lambda, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, ruxolitinib, sofosbuvir-daclatasvir, telmisartan, tocilizumab, triazavirin, umifenovir, vitamin D analogues (calcifediol/cholecalciferol), and other disease modifying agents
  • Guidance surrounding chemoprophylaxis following exposure
  • Respiratory support considerations, including high-flow nasal oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation, respiratory management of the deteriorating patient, videolaryngoscopy, neuromuscular blockers, positive end-expiratory pressure, prone positioning, recruitment manoeuvres, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis considerations
  • Continuation of anti-hypertensive medications in patients with COVID-19, including people with asthma and COPD, postpartum women, and women on oestrogen-containing therapies
  • Guidance on pregnancy care, including antenatal corticosteroids, mode of birth, delayed umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and rooming-in of mother and newborn
  • Guidance on children and adolescent care, including paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS-TS), intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, other immunomodulatory agents, and aspirin and antithrombotic agents

British Thoracic Society guidance on respiratory follow up of patients with a clinico-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia

Date: 2020 May 11
Developer: British Thoracic Society (BTS)

Guideline Focus
Radiological follow up of the pneumonic process and the subsequent diagnosis and management of respiratory complications of COVID-19 pneumonia

Patient Population
Patients with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Follow up clinical, radiological and investigational evaluation algorithm for patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, including those requiring ICU care
  • Follow up clinical, radiological, and investigational evaluation algorithm for patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 pneumonia who were hospitalized or cared for at home
  • Team management approach and role of telehealth

Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Date: 2020 Dec 14
Developer: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM)

Guideline Focus
Occupational health and treatment considerations for COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Employer considerations, including risk mitigation strategies, isolation, and return-to-work protocols
  • Management strategies for schools and specific industries
  • Indications for vaccination
  • Disease spread, diagnostic testing considerations, and disease categories
  • Treatment options based on disease severity for outpatient and inpatient settings

Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) treatment guidelines

Date: 2021 Jan 14
Developer: National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Testing considerations for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including nucleic acid amplification, virologic, and serologic
  • Guidance on use of prophylactic medications before or after exposure
  • Clinical manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection according to illness severity
  • Treatment of critically ill patients, including infection control and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers, hemodynamics, oxygenation and ventilation, acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy, pharmacotherapy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Therapeutic management of patients with COVID-19
  • Antiviral drugs that are approved or under evaluation for treatment of COVID-19, including remdesivir, chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir and other HIV protease inhibitors
  • Immune-based therapy under evaluation for treatment of COVID-19, including blood-derived products—convalescent plasma, immunoglobulins (SARS-CoV-2 specific and non-SARS-CoV-2 specific), mesenchymal stem cells; and immunomodulators—corticosteroids (i.e., dexamethasone), interferons (alfa, beta), interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 inhibitors, kinase inhibitors
  • Guidance on adjunctive therapy with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc
  • Antithrombotic therapy, including laboratory testing, management of chronic therapy, venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis and screening, treatment, and considerations in pregnancy
  • Considerations surrounding use and discontinuation of antihypertensives, corticosteroids, statins, and antiinflammatory medications
  • Special considerations for pregnancy, children, adults and children with cancer, solid organ transplant, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, cellular therapy candidates, donors and recipients, and people with HIV
  • Guidance on influenza vaccination, and diagnosis and treatment when influenza and SARS-CoV-2 are co-circulating
  • Emergency use authorization of bamlanivimab, casirivimab plus imdevimab combination, and baricitinib for treatment of COVID-19, and guidance on ivermectin

Corticosteroids for COVID-19: living guidance

Date: 2020 Sep 2
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Role of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Role of corticosteroids for patients with severe or critical COVID-19
  • Guidance on use of corticosteroids for patients with non-severe COVID-19

COVID-19 coronavirus disease guidelines. Version 1.3

Date: 2020 May
Developer: Saudi Center for Disease Prevention and Control (SaudiCDC)

Guideline Focus
Detection and prevention of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Definitions of suspected and confirmed cases
  • Infection prevention and control measures, and considerations for patient transport
  • Laboratory diagnosis and sample handling
  • Public health considerations, including contact tracing, surveillance, and isolation management
  • Human-animal interface, points of entry, traveler health, and managing of deceased bodies

COVID-19 guidelines. Version 3

Date: 2020 Oct 20
Developer: Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS)

Guideline Focus
COVID-19 pandemic planning

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Development of ICU pandemic plans, including decreasing ICU demand and increasing capacity
  • Considerations for remote, rural, and regional areas
  • Management of rapid response and code blue teams, patient transport, and critically ill patients in the emergency department
  • Infection control, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and engineering controls
  • Management of staff, including attention to wellbeing

COVID-19 infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest

Date: 2020 Sep 10
Developer: International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR)

Guideline Focus
Infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest

Patient Population
Known or suspected COVID-19 patients in cardiac arrest

Major Interventions

  • Generation of aerosols by CPR and chest compressions
  • Lay rescuer resuscitation guidance for adults and children during the COVID-19 pandemic
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers performing aerosol generating procedures during resuscitation
  • Role of defibrillation prior to donning PPE

COVID-19 position statement: reducing the risk of postoperative mortality due to COVID-19 in patients undergoing elective surgery

Date: 2020 Aug 21
Developer: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

Guideline Focus
Assessment and isolation of patients prior to all elective surgery to reduce the risk of postoperative mortality due to COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and paediatric patients undergoing elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Patient communication and discussion of risk
  • Risk mitigation and presurgical preparation
  • Presurgical screening and COVID-19 testing, including testing method considerations
  • Management of positive preoperative COVID-19 testing
  • Postoperative and post discharge advice and management
  • Considerations for special populations, including paediatric, pregnant, and cancer patients

COVID-19 rapid guideline: acute kidney injury in hospital

Date: 2020 May 6
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Prevent, detect and manage acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients who are hospitalized with COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and families, risk reduction, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Treatment planning and monitoring for progression to chronic kidney disease
  • Prevention of acute kidney injury and monitoring for development, including attention to fluid balance
  • Diagnostic testing considerations and management of hyperkalemia
  • Criteria for specialty referral and renal replacement therapy considerations

COVID-19 rapid guideline: acute myocardial injury

Date: 2020 Apr 23
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Acute myocardial injury in COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 and acute myocardial injury

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and patient isolation
  • Clinical presentation and diagnostic testing
  • Management of acute myocardial injury, including monitoring, specialty care, and critical care considerations
  • Guidance on use of medications to treat COVID-19 in patients with myocardial injury

COVID-19 rapid guideline: antibiotics for pneumonia in adults in hospital

Date: 2020 May 1
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Adult patients hospitalized with pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and the role of decision support tools
  • Use of laboratory testing and imaging to guide treatment decisions
  • Factors suggesting the need for antibiotic treatment
  • Antibiotic choice, route, and dosing considerations for community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia
  • Use of clinical, laboratory, and imaging information to guide duration and discontinuation of antibiotics
  • Role of specialists in care and need for future research

COVID-19 rapid guideline: arranging planned care in hospitals and diagnostic services

Date: 2020 Jul 27
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Deliver efficient planned care in hospitals and diagnostic services during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring planned care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Role of shared decision making and planning
  • Patient preparation
  • Risk mitigation, symptom assessment, and COVID testing prior to anesthesia
  • Workflow modifications and infection prevention
  • Follow-up testing and arrangements
  • Risk assessment and isolation practices for health care workers

COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing suspected or confirmed pneumonia in adults in the community

Date: 2020 Apr 3
Developer: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Managing suspected or confirmed pneumonia in COVID-19 patients

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19 and suspected or confirmed pneumonia

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and infection prevention
  • Treatment planning, advance directives, and decision support tools
  • Diagnosing pneumonia and assessing severity including use of assessment tools
  • Differentiating viral COVID-19 pneumonia from bacterial pneumonia
  • Assessing the need for hospital admission
  • Management of breathlessness, antibiotic treatment, and guidance on the use of oral corticosteroids
  • Anticipatory guidance and reassessment

COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing symptoms (including at the end of life) in the community

Date: 2020 Apr 3
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

Guideline Focus
Managing COVID-19 patients in the community

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Communicating with patients and infection prevention
  • Treatment planning, advance directives, and anticipating care escalation
  • General management principles
  • Treatment options for cough, fever, breathlessness, anxiety, delirium, and agitation
  • Prescribing, ordering, supplying, transporting, storing, and disposing of medicines
  • Prescribing and supplying medicines at the end of life
  • Infection control and PPE considerations for healthcare workers

CSC expert consensus on principles of clinical management of patients with severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 epidemic

Date: 2020 May 19
Developer: Chinese Society of Cardiology (CSC)

Guideline Focus
Management of severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients presenting with severe emergent cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Triaging of patients presenting to the ED
  • Risk assessment and protective measures for patients and staff
  • Medical therapy considerations directed by presenting conditions
  • Performance of invasive interventional procedures, including infection control
  • Perioperative management, including infection control
  • Laboratory testing and imaging
  • Referral between hospitals, use of telemedicine, and assessing the need for psychological intervention

Diagnostic work up of the patient presenting with respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic

Date: 2020 Sep 17
Developer: Primary Care Respiratory Society (PCRS)

Guideline Focus
Evaluation of respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Role of safe and comprehensive structured clinical assessment of respiratory symptoms
  • Management of patients with a likely diagnosis of asthma
  • Evaluation of patients with suspected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

DoD COVID-19 practice management guide: clinical management of COVID-19. Version 4.0

Date: 2020 Jun 18
Developer: Department of Defense (DoD)

Guideline Focus
Optimize DoD response to the current COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Neonatal, pediatric, and adult patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Clinical presentation and course
  • Planning, screening, triage, and infection control
  • Diagnostic considerations, including laboratory and imaging studies
  • Management of disease based on severity (e.g., asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, critical), including pharmacological interventions and prevention of complications
  • Considerations for coinfections, special populations (e.g., pregnant, children, elderly), palliative care, behavioral health, rehabilitation, and surgical care
  • Operational and systemic considerations, including EMS, public health, telemedicine, and government response

ELSA recommendations for minimally invasive surgery during a community spread pandemic: a centered approach in Asia from widespread to recovery phases

Date: 2020 Aug
Developer: Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of Asia (ELSA)

Guideline Focus
Minimally invasive surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients requiring minimally invasive surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Modifications to elective surgery scheduling, pre-surgical assessment, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) based on community spread (i.e., active, limited, times of sporadic cases or recovery)
  • Considerations for emergency surgery
  • Guidance on environment (i.e., operating room), staffing, and infection control
  • Technical considerations for laparoscopic surgery, including smoke evacuation

Enteral tube feeding safety in COVID-19 patients

Date: 2020 May 13
Developer: British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN)

Guideline Focus
Enteral tube feeding safety in patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Nutritional support considerations
  • Safe feeding tube placement practices, including indications for X-ray, pH testing, and need for specialized staff
  • Feeding tube maintenance and considerations for prone positioned patients
  • Feeding method options
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by staff

ESPEN expert statements and practical guidance for nutritional management of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Date: 2020 Jun
Developer: European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN)

Guideline Focus
Nutritional management of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Prevention of and screening for malnutrition in high-risk patients
  • Optimization of nutritional status and maintenance of physical activity
  • Indications for oral nutritional supplements, enteral nutrition, and parenteral nutrition
  • Considerations for intubated and non-intubated ICU patients
  • Management of post-intubation swallowing disorder

Guidance for discharge and ending isolation in the context of widespread community transmission of COVID-19

Date: 2020 Apr 8
Developer: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

Guideline Focus
Guidance for discharge and ending isolation of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Discharge criteria for hospitalized patients based on clinical criteria and testing
  • Considerations for specific discharge destinations and immunocompromised patients
  • Clinical criteria for ending self-isolation in non-hospitalized patients, including first responders
  • Self-isolation guidance for family members, caregivers, and contacts of patients
  • Review of criteria for ending isolation by country

Guidelines: anaesthesia in the context of COVID-19 pandemic

Date: 2020 Jun 5
Developer: French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (SFAR)

Guideline Focus
Use of anesthesia during COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Pediatric and adult patients requiring anesthesia during COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE), infection control measures, patient movement, and isolation measures
  • Assessing and documenting risk/benefit ratio of surgery
  • Preoperative assessment and decision making
  • Use of telemedicine for preanesthetic patient evaluation
  • Modifications to anesthesia delivery
  • Considerations for resumption of surgical activity following the pandemic

Home care for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and management of their contacts: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Aug 12
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Home management of patients with COVID-19 and their contacts

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 and their contacts being managed at home

Major Interventions

  • Clinical evaluation of patient and assessment of disease severity
  • Treatment setting considerations for confirmed and suspected cases and assessment of home setting
  • Personal hygiene, infection prevention measures, waste management, and establishing a link to health care setting for patients in home isolation
  • Drug supply management for patients with chronic diseases
  • Palliative care in the home setting
  • Isolation considerations for patients and contacts
  • Management of patients who become symptomatic

Infection prevention and control and preparedness for COVID-19 in healthcare settings

Date: 2020 Jul 3
Developer: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention and control for COVID-19

Patient Population
Suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients and healthcare personnel

Major Interventions

  • Triage and initial assessment of patients
  • Optimized use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Safe collection of diagnostic respiratory samples
  • Patient isolation and transport
  • Performance of aerosol generating procedures
  • Administrative, environmental, and staffing considerations for hospitals and long-term care facilities

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with COVID-19. Version 3.5.1

Date: 2020 Dec 2
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Management and treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine with or without azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, famotidine, and corticosteroids
  • Role and dosing duration of remdesivir and glucocorticoids for hospitalized patients with severe disease
  • Summary of treatments undergoing evaluation

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the diagnosis of COVID-19: molecular diagnostic testing. Version 2.0

Date: 2020 Dec 23
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Diagnosis of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Method, type, and number of tests for symptomatic patients
  • Collection of samples and specimen type considerations
  • Testing of asymptomatic individuals exposed to COVID-19
  • Guidance on testing asymptomatic individuals being admitted to the hospital with no known COVID-19 exposure based on community prevalence
  • Testing for special populations, including asymptomatic immunosuppressed individuals and those presenting for surgery and/or aerosol-generating procedures

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the diagnosis of COVID-19: serologic testing. Version 1.0

Date: 2020 Aug 18
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Serologic testing for the diagnosis of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with suspected COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Timing considerations of serologic testing
  • Choice of serologic test
  • Role of serology in supplementing nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)
  • Guidance on use of capillary vs. venous blood

Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on infection prevention in patients with suspected or known COVID-19. Version 1.0.1

Date: 2020 Apr 30
Developer: Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention in patients with suspected or known COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use of N95 or surgical masks for routine patient care in conventional and crisis capacity settings
  • Considerations for single vs. double gloving and the use of shoe covers
  • Use, reuse, and extended use of N95 and surgical masks with and without face shields for aerosol-generating procedures in conventional and crisis capacity settings

Infection prevention and control during health care when coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is suspected or confirmed: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Jun 29
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Infection prevention and control during health care when COVID-19 is suspected

Patient Population
Patients with suspected COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Screening, triage, recognition, isolation practices, and maintaining a high level of suspicion
  • Use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), hand hygiene, and standard precautions for all patients
  • Use of contact and droplet precautions, cohorting of patients, and treatment teams to minimize spread within facilities
  • Administrative, environmental, and engineering controls
  • Role of airborne precautions for aerosol-generating procedures
  • Considerations for surgical procedures and outpatient care
  • Management of samples from confirmed or suspected patients and from cadavers

Initial public health response and interim clinical guidance for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak - United States, December 31, 2019-February 4, 2020

Date: 2020 Feb 7
Developer: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Guideline Focus
Initial public health response and interim clinical guidance for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak

Major Interventions

  • Epidemiology of first US cases, and public health response
  • Laboratory, diagnostic support, and availability of genomic data
  • Clinical and infection control guidance, including personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Guidance on influenza vaccination to decrease confusion, and promote efficient use of resources
  • Treatment options including antiviral therapy, immunosuppressive agents, steroids, and immunomodulators

Mask use in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Dec 1
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of medical masks in communities, at home, and in health care facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
General public

Major Interventions

  • Mask and respirator use in health care and community settings depending on transmission scenario, target population, setting, activity, and type
  • Mask management, including proper use, storage, cleaning, and disposal
  • Use of medical masks for those with suspected or documented COVID-19 illness who are being managed at home, and for their caregivers
  • Guidance on mask use during physical activity and face shield use for the general public

Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: CHEST guideline and Expert Panel report

Date: 2020 Sep
Developer: American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST)

Guideline Focus
Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Indications for choice and dosing of thromboprophylaxis
  • Guidance surrounding mechanical prophylaxis and extended thromboprohylaxis after hospital discharge
  • Screening for and treatment of proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)
  • Considerations for recurrent VTE

Prevention, identification and management of health worker infection in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Oct 30
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Prevention, surveillance, and testing of COVID-19 in health workers, including management following exposure and eventual safe return to work

Patient Population
Health workers who have had suspected or confirmed COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Prevention strategies, including institutional programs (e.g., control, occupational health, safety)
  • Early detection interventions, including syndromic surveillance, testing following exposure, and routine testing
  • Management of exposure, infection, and return to work
  • Monitoring, studying, and reporting health worker infections, including assessment of risk factors and surveillance protocols

Rational use of personal protective equipment for COVID-19 and considerations during severe shortages: interim guidance

Date: 2020 Dec 23
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for COVID-19

Patient Population
Suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients

Major Interventions

  • Preventive measures for health care workers
  • Guidance on reuse of PPE and strategies during shortages
  • Supply chain management and coordination
  • Minimizing the need for PPE and promoting rational supply use

Rehabilitation programs for patients with COronaVIrus Disease 2019: consensus statements of Taiwan Academy of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Date: 2021 Jan
Developer: Taiwan Academy of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (TACVPR)

Guideline Focus
Rehabilitation programs for patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with current or recent COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Rehabilitation principles for outpatients stratified by disease severity and presence of risk factors
  • Interventions for hospitalized patients, including ventilator-supported patients with and without impaired cognition

Respiratory support in patients with COVID-19 (outside intensive care unit). A position paper of the Respiratory Support and Chronic Care Group of the French Society of Respiratory Diseases

Date: 2020 Nov
Developer: French Society of Respiratory Diseases (SPLF)

Guideline Focus
Respiratory care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support

Major Interventions

  • Use of oxygen therapy and target pulse oximetry levels
  • Modes of invasive and noninvasive ventilation, including advantages and disadvantages of each
  • Guidance on use of nebulized medications and tracheal aspirations
  • Approach to patient management
  • Management algorithm for COVID-related acute respiratory failure

Route of nutrition support in patients requiring NIV & CPAP during the COVID-19 response

Date: 2020 Apr 17
Developer: British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN); British Dietetic Association (BDA); National Nurses Nutrition Group (NNNG); British Thoracic Society (BTS); Intensive Care Society (ICS)

Guideline Focus
Route of nutrition support for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Equipment considerations
  • Monitoring for and management of gastric distention
  • Patient positioning and role of prokinetic agents
  • Considerations for nasojejunal (NJ) tube placement
  • Role of, indications for, and considerations surrounding parenteral nutrition

SARS CoV-2

Date: 2020 May 14
Developer: American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC)

Guideline Focus
Respiratory care for patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Type of supplement oxygen delivery, mechanical ventilation, and setting considerations, including use of heated humidification
  • Use of prone positioning, CPAP and bilevel devices as ventilators, and triaging of ventilator equipment
  • Guidance on ventilation of multiple patients with a single ventilator, use of artificial resuscitators, and administration of inhaled or aerosolized vasodilators

Scientific and Standardization Committee communication: clinical guidance on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Date: 2020 Aug
Developer: International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH)

Guideline Focus
Prevention and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients hospitalized with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • Diagnostic techniques and guidance on use of bedside Doppler ultrasonography for screening
  • Use and duration of VTE prophylaxis in ICU and non-ICU hospitalized patients
  • Selective use of post-discharge thromboprophylaxis
  • Treatment considerations for patients with VTE

Should clinicians use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19? Living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1)

Date: 2020 Jul 21
Developer: American College of Physicians (ACP)

Guideline Focus
Use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 exposure or disease

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19
  • Guidance on role of clinical trials for hospitalized patients

Should remdesivir be used for the treatment of patients with COVID-19? Rapid, living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1)

Date: 2020 Oct 5
Developer: American College of Physicians (ACP)

Guideline Focus
Use of remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment

Patient Population
Nonpregnant patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use of remdesivir for treatment of moderate and severe COVID-19
  • Duration of use based on severity of disease

The Stanford Hall consensus statement for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation

Date: 2020 Aug
Developer: Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre (DMRC)

Guideline Focus
Post COVID-19 rehabilitation

Patient Population
Adult patients who are active, including military personnel and athletes, recovering from COVID-19 infection

Major Interventions

  • General rehabilitation principles, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE), treatment goals, and patient education
  • Specific assessments and interventions by system, including pulmonary, cardiac, psychological, musculoskeletal, and neurologic
  • Exercise rehabilitation considerations for recovering patients and asymptomatic contacts
  • Medical rehabilitation management, including specialty referral

Surgical Infection Society guidance for operative and peri-operative care of adult patients infected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Date: 2020 May
Developer: Surgical Infection Society (SIS)

Guideline Focus
Operative and peri-operative care of adult patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with COVID-19 requiring surgical intervention

Major Interventions

  • Organization of operating room flow, including environmental and personnel considerations
  • Perioperative considerations, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and modifications for high-risk procedures, including endotracheal intubation, endoscopy, tracheostomy, and laparoscopy
  • Sequence and procedure for removal of surgical attire and PPE
  • Surgical smoke evacuation and operating room cleaning and disinfection
  • Management of potentially exposed health care workers

Therapeutics and COVID-19: living guideline

Date: 2020 Dec 17
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Role of therapeutic medications in the treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19 at varying levels of severity

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, and corticosteroids in patients at varying levels of severity—critical, severe, non-severe

Thromboembolism and anticoagulant therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic: interim clinical guidance from the Anticoagulation Forum

Date: 2020 Jul
Developer: Anticoagulation Forum

Guideline Focus
Use of anticoagulant therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Use and dosing of pharmacologic venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis for hospitalized patients
  • Role of mechanical VTE prophylaxis
  • Selective use of post-hospital pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis
  • Laboratory monitoring of unfractionated heparin dosing
  • Guidance on use of biomarkers to trigger care changes
  • Management of patients with a hospital-associated VTE event
  • Considerations for pediatric patients

Use of chest imaging in COVID-19: a rapid advice guide

Date: 2020 Jun 11
Developer: World Health Organization (WHO)

Guideline Focus
Use of chest imaging in acute care of patients with COVID-19

Patient Population
Adult patients with suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 disease

Major Interventions

  • Guidance on use of chest imaging for diagnosis in asymptomatic patients
  • Criteria for diagnostic chest imaging in symptomatic patients
  • Choice of imaging modality
  • Role of chest imaging for assessment and management in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19
  • Guidance on use of chest imaging in recovered hospitalized patients to inform discharge readiness

Use of N95, surgical, and cloth masks to prevent COVID-19 in health care and community settings: living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1)

Date: 2020 Oct 20
Developer: American College of Physicians (ACP)

Guideline Focus
Effectiveness of masks for the prevention of COVID-19 transmission

Patient Population
All patients, health care staff, and community members during the COVID-19 pandemic

Major Interventions

  • Role of N95 respirators, surgical masks, and cloth masks in community and health care settings
  • Guidance on reuse and extended use of N95 respirators in health care settings

Treatment of patients with nonsevere and severe coronavirus disease 2019: an evidence-based guideline

Date: 2020 May 19
Developer: McMaster University

Guideline Focus
Treatment of COVID-19

Patient Population
Patients with COVID-19

Major Interventions

  • Role of corticosteroids in treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Guidance on use of corticosteroids in patients without ARDS
  • Guidance on use of antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, and interferons in patients with severe and nonsevere disease

Return to the ECRI COVID-19 Resource Center