Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

September 11, 2014 | Technology Forecasts


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes, is the result of a chronic autoimmune condition in which the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas; immune-mediated destruction accounts for the majority of cases.1,2 T1DM can occur at any age but is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults; as such, it is often referred to as juvenile-onset diabetes.3 In healthy individuals, the pancreas secretes the hormone insulin in response to high blood glucose (i.e., sugar), allowing the glucose to enter cells for use as energy.1 In patients with T1DM, this mechanism of blood glucose control is lost due to the pancreas' inability to produce sufficient insulin.1 All patients with T1DM require insulin therapy to survive.4

According to the National Institutes of Health, diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.5 The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation estimates that as many as 3 million Americans have T1DM and that T1DM is diagnosed in about 80 people every day.6 An average of 15,600 people aged 20 years or younger receive a diagnosis of T1DM annually.5 T1DM accounts for about 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus.7 Non-Hispanic white youths reportedly have the highest rate of new cases, accounting for...

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